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    If the patient has been successfully immunized against rubella or has had the disease, the HI antibody titer (concentration) will be greater than 1:10–1:20. The red blood cells will fail to clump when the rubella virus is added to the blood serum.

    In the case of paired testing for pregnant women, a fourfold rise in antibody titer between the first and second blood samples indicates the suspicious rash was caused by rubella. The alternative test for IgM antibody confirms recent rubella infection if IgM is found in the patient's blood.

    Source: The Gale Group. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.";

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