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  • here are two: Langeleik From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The langeleik is a traditional stringed musical instrument from Norway. The instrument has only one melody string, but it has additional drone strings (or "bourdons"). There are usually 7 or 8 drone strings on modern instruments, but older ones had fewer, most often four drones. The frets under the melody string are placed such that it can only play a diatonic major scale. The drone strings are also tuned to the triad of the melody string (nominally C, E and G although really somewhere around A, C# and E). Since the instrument cannot play a chromatic scale nor be easily tuned to other pitches, it is very limited in its ability to play along with other instruments and/or more harmonically complex music. The combination of the lone melody string and the multiple drone strings gives the langeleik a distinctively rich sound. The oldest known langeleik in existence is dated 1524. It is clearly related to other European instruments, but mostly to the German scheitholt and the French epinette des Vosges, among others. [edit] Types of langeleik Early langeleiks are basically rectangular in shape, and often have an open bottom. They usually have five or six strings. They often had unique traditional scales other than the modern major scale (using 3/4 tones, etc.). Especially the third and seventh tend to be different; the third is often neutral (between a major and minor third) and the seventh tends to be lower than the modern leading tone. Modern langeleiks are somewhat curved, being wider at the middle, as it is the experience of modern instrument makers that this makes the instrument sound louder. They are all tuned to a major scale. [edit] Performers Even within Norway, there are comparatively few performers of the langeleik. It is particularly common in the Valdres area in central Norway. Among the best known performers of the late twentieth century is Elisabeth Kværne. The Norwegian blues guitarist Knut Reiersrud also plays it on occasion. Hardingfele From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Hardingfele Classification *Bowed string instrument Related instruments Fiddle Violin A Hardanger fiddle (or in Norwegian: hardingfele) is a traditional stringed instrument used originally to play the music of Norway. In modern designs, the instruments are very similar to the violin, though with eight or nine strings and thinner wood. Four of the strings are strung and played like a violin, while the rest, aptly named understrings or sympathetic strings, resonate under the influence of the other four, providing a pleasant haunting, echo-like sound. The Hardingfele is used mainly in the southwest part of Norway, whereas the ordinary violin (called 'flatfele' - 'flat fiddle' or 'vanlig fele' - 'common fiddle') is found elsewhere. The Hardingfele is used for dancing, accompanied by rhythmic loud foot stomping. It was also traditional for the fiddler to lead the bridal procession to the church. The instrument often is highly decorated, with a carved animal (usually a dragon or the Lion of Norway) or a carved woman's head as part of the scroll at the top of the pegbox, extensive mother of pearl inlay on the tailpiece and fingerboard, and black ink decorations called 'rosing' on the body of the instrument. Sometimes pieces of bone are used to decorate the pegs and the edges of the instrument. The earliest known example of the hardingfele is from 1651, made by Ole Jonsen Jaastad in Hardanger, Norway.[1] Originally, the instrument had a rounder, narrower body.[2] Around the year 1850, the modern layout with a body much like the violin became the norm.

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